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submitted by Harshit (5 m) on 8 May 2013 11:14:30 IST
 Author: Dr.Badruddin KhanHydrocarbons, composed entirely of carbon and hydrogen, are the most important family of organic compounds. They are the organic compounds of simplest composition and may be considered the parent substances from which all other organic compounds are derived. The hydrocarbons are conveniently classified into two major groups: open-chain and cyclic. In open-chain compounds containing more than one carbon atom, the carbon atoms are attached to each other to form an open chain; the chain may carry one or more side branches. In cyclic compounds the carbon atoms form one or more closed rings. The two major groups are subdivided according to   ...

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submitted by Anisha (0 m) on 8 May 2013 11:12:23 IST
 Author: nayaknandan85Introduction to thermodynamic equilibrium:Thermodynamics (from ancient Greek thermos "warm" and dynamics "power") also known as thermodynamics is a branch of classical physics. It is the doctrine of energy, its forms and their ability to do work.The basis of thermodynamics is four main propositions. The thermodynamics brings quantities such as energy, heat, work, pressure and volume together. It allows us to find what changes are possible in a system and gives us information on the necessary steps on pressure temperature and other conditions. It gives no indication as to how fast the process happens or what happens at t   ...

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submitted by Garima (0 m) on 8 May 2013 10:58:46 IST
 Author: chrisThird law of thermodynamics is also known as Nernst law and it was introduced by Walther Nernst. According to Third Law of Thermodynamics, we can determine entropy of any substance if, reference point temperature is absolutely zero. This state that ‘At zero Kelvin temperature entropy of solid crystal is may be zero or exactly zero'.In statistical mathematics, this law is defined with other name that is derived law. It is derived from fundamental law. New derived law of statistical mathematics can be used for finding entropy of large system. Given equation is known as derived law equation:H= Kb ln $Here value of ‘kb' shows the B   ...

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submitted by Eshita (0 m) on 8 May 2013 10:57:21 IST
 Author: Dr.Badruddin KhanThermochemistry is the study of the heat released or absorbed as a result of chemical reactions. It is a branch of thermodynamics and is utilized by a wide range of scientists and engineers. For example, biochemists use thermochemistry to understand bioenergetics, whereas chemical engineers apply it to design manufacturing plants. Chemical reactions involve the conversion of a set of substances collectively referred to as "reactants" to a set of substances collectively referred to as "products." In the following balanced chemical reaction the reactants are gaseous methane, CH4 (g), and gaseous molecular oxygen, O2 (   ...

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submitted by Mohit (5 m) on 8 May 2013 10:55:26 IST
By Aigo ShimonakaAtoms, molecules, elements, isotopes...BORING! Well, it may be for some people, but personally, I think it's rather fascinating. For one thing, everything in the world is made from these invisible particles. Although you might think of atoms when imagining the smallest "thing" in the world, when asking yourself what an atom is made of, it becomes clear there are smaller particles.What is an Atom?Atoms are made out of a combination of electrons, protons, and neutrons - subatomic particles. How many of these three subatomic particles an atom contains depends on what chemical element it belongs to. Atoms are categorized by the unique numb   ...

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submitted by Rahul (0 m) on 8 May 2013 10:54:00 IST
By Elizabeth BlakeBefore we discuss the structure of atoms, we need to learn the terms mass and weight. While we are on earth, the terms mass and weight reflect the same thing. If we are on the moon, our weight will be less but our mass will be the same. It's been said that if you want to lose weight, go to the moon. If you want to lose mass, go on a diet and exercise. For our purposes in this article, the terms mass and weight will be used interchangeably, since we are on earth.Hydrogen, helium, carbon, nitrogen are called elements. There are a little more than 100 known elements, and they are listed in the periodic table. All matter is made up of various combi   ...

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submitted by anu (0 m) on 8 May 2013 10:52:23 IST
 Author: mathqa22Basic InformationName: NeonSymbol: NeAtomic Number: 10Atomic Mass: 20.1797 amuMelting Point: -248.6 °C (24.549994 K, -415.48 °F)Boiling Point: -246.1 °C (27.049994 K, -410.98 °F)Number of Protons/Electrons: 10Number of Neutrons: 10Classification: Noble GasCrystal Structure: CubicDensity @ 293 K: 0.901 g/cm3Color: colorlessAtomic Structure[Bohr Model of Neon]Number of Energy Levels: 2First Energy Level: 2Second Energy Level: 8IsotopesIsotope Half LifeNe-20 StableNe-21 StableNe-22 StableFactsDate of Discovery: 1898Discoverer: Sir William RamsayName Origin: Form the Greek word neos (new)Uses: lightingObtained From: liquid airThe el   ...

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submitted by Govind (0 m) on 8 May 2013 10:48:42 IST
By Richa PareraEnvironment plays a very important role in plant growth upto a point. Once optimal environmental levels have been achieved in the hydroponics grow room, however, it is the quality of nutrition that determines crop quality and output. The following background information will be useful in understanding of the role of nutrients in hydroponics cultivation.NitrogenPlants absorb nitrogen from fertilizers in both Nitrate (NO3) and ammonium (NH4) forms. Both ammonium and nitrate forms are available in the standard fertilizer mix supplied. It should be noted however, that ammonium levels should be significantly lower than nitrate levels with a safe level bein   ...

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submitted by Harshit (5 m) on 8 May 2013 10:46:17 IST
 Author: Mineral SupplementMineral SupplementsThe value of getting a sufficient amount of minerals to our body to maintain our overall health cannot be stressed enough. Having enough mineral levels in our body provides a wide variety of health benefits while having mineral deficiencies results to a wide variety of health problems including death in severe cases. Minerals play a part in nerve transmission, muscle contraction, cell permeability, tissue structure, blood formation, acid-base balance, fluid regulation, blood pressure control, protein metabolism and energy production. With the decrease of mineral concentrations on the food we eat and increase on poll   ...

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submitted by Mohit (5 m) on 8 May 2013 10:38:56 IST
By Wendy PanPlant growth stages mirror other living things with a beginning, reproductive, and ending stage, except some plants have an additional dormant stage. The terms for these stages are: Vegetative, Reproductive, Senescence, and Dormancy.Starting with the seed, a plant seed is similar to a fertilized egg. It contains a food store for the new plant life, and a protective outer shell. In the first stage of plant growth, the Vegetative stage, the seedling absorbs moisture and nutrients from the inner food store inside the seed. When the plant has absorbed the seed foods and starts growing the root stem, and shoot that becomes leaves, it penetrates the seed's   ...

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submitted by Prakash (0 m) on 8 May 2013 10:36:20 IST
By Widi M. TchalaTo duplicate itself any mother cell has two choices, cell division or cytoplasm division, no mitosis or meiosis is involved in this process. What makes a difference between prokaryote and eukaryote cells is that the later take more time to prepare for new cell production than the more primitive prokaryotes. Please read on to find out why this is so!Life goes in steps or stages or phases bound in what is called a life cycle that is followed by all living organisms from generation to generation.For prokaryotes the life cycle or the cell cycle has 4 phases:The first growth phase called G1 is characterized by a single genetic center, here the nucleoidTh   ...

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submitted by Bharati (70 m) on 8 May 2013 10:33:37 IST
 Author: Man SinghThis could be summarized as- Introduction, Interdisciplinary treatment to biomolecules, Significance of interdisciplinary approach, Significance of thermodynamic description of biochemical and biophysical processes, Current knowledge on the topic.Thermodynamics is an asset for studies of folding and defolding of proteins, Energy optimization of proteins and allied molecules, Globular proteins and their interaction pattern, Globular proteins as carrier molecules for sodium and potassium channel pumps, Hydration interaction and viscous studies of the globular proteins, Activation energy of the globular proteins, Volumetric treatment to the enzym   ...

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submitted by Daksh (5 m) on 8 May 2013 10:30:57 IST
 Author: BennyThe cell is the most basic unit of life. It is the smallest component of the architecture of an organism. It is the basic structural and functional unit of any living form. The cell was first observed and characterized by the biologist Robert Hooke from samples of onion skin under a basic optical microscope.Organisms are classified mainly as unicellular or multicellular. In the former a single cell performs all life functions of the organism required for its survival and propagation. In the latter groups of cells are organized into higher levels of functional systems that together perform the life activities of an organism. Cells are grouped into   ...

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submitted by Rahul (0 m) on 8 May 2013 10:23:05 IST
By John J NeilsonAccounting is concerned with the recording, classifying and summarizing of financial transactions and events and interpreting the results thereof. It aims at providing information about the financial performance of a firm to its various users such as owners, manager's employees, investors, and creditors, suppliers of goods and services and tax authorities and helps them in taking important decisions. The investors, for example, may be interested in knowing the extent of profit or loss earned by the firm during a given period and compares it with the performance of other similar enterprises. The suppliers of credit, says a banker, may, in additio   ...

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submitted by Anisha (0 m) on 8 May 2013 10:18:03 IST
 Author: john irronA financial statement is an official record of the financial activities of an individual, business or other thing. This statement is often referred to as an account, even though the term financial statement is also used, mostly by accountants. It provides an overview of a business or person's financial condition in both short and long term.It is a tool used to communicate financial information of an entity to those who wants to make decision and informed judgments about the entity's economic position, results of operation and cash flows. There are four financial statement such as Balance Sheet, Income Statement, Statement of Cash Flow   ...

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submitted by Eshita (0 m) on 8 May 2013 10:16:22 IST
By Anil Kumar GuptaAdvantages (Objectives of Trial Balance)1. It ensures that the transactions recorded in the books of accounts have identical debit and credit amount.2. Balance of each ledger account has been computed correctly.3. Balance of each and every ledger account has been transferred accurately and on the correct side of the sheet on which trial balance has been prepared.4. The debit and the credit columns of trial balance have been added up correctly.5. Preparation of final accounts is not possible without preparing trial balance first.6. Agreed trial balance is a prima facie evidence of the arithmetical accuracy of the accounting books maintained.7. Erro   ...

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submitted by Tushar (0 m) on 8 May 2013 10:14:56 IST
 Author: Jhonny DubeyAccountants are required in all business operations regardless of the size and type of organization. Every organization must track its revenues as well as need to keep records of all financial transactions as per state or government policies. Accountants are vital to gather and organize financial records and analyze the financial status of an organization. The executive management of all organization depends upon accounting information for making policies as well as for critical business decisions. With the growing use of computers in organizations across the globe, most organizations are using computerized accounting for maintaining financ   ...

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submitted by Jaya (5 m) on 8 May 2013 10:11:45 IST
 Author: Ajeet KhuranaIf one were to reduce business to the simplest terms, one would probably call it the selling of goods by one person, and the buying of those same goods by another. Thus, whether we pay cash or run up a tab while doing business, money has to change hands during the course of a business transaction.Accounts receivables is one such type of a business transaction. It refers to the way of dealing with amounts of money that are owed to a business by its customer. On the balance sheet of a company, accounts receivable refer to the amount of money that a customer owes it. Accounts receivables are also referred to as trade receivables, which makes   ...

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submitted by anu (0 m) on 8 May 2013 10:09:57 IST
 Author: Andrew RichardsonIf you want to explain the term "Introduction to Accounting" then certain topics needs to be discussed thoroughly. The process of accounting basically concerned with providing a means of reporting, interpreting and summarizing economic data. It can only be undertaken with the support of a designed accounting system. It enables the user to grab required information in order to derive fruitful results. With the help of such a designed system user can easily issue the reports that assist them to take right decisions for various departments. In this modern era everybody is going for modern techniques of maintaining accounts but t   ...

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submitted by Jaya (5 m) on 7 May 2013 21:36:31 IST
By Robin ReichertWhat is electromagnetic radiation?There are several different types of radiation present in our surroundings on a day to day basis. Within the electromagnetic spectrum, radiation is either ionizing or non-ionizing. Ionizing radiation is harmful to humans, because exposure causes cells and genetic matter to mutate or change form. Non-ionizing radiation, while it has believed to be safe, is now proven to overheat cells, causing them damage as well. Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) can be described in terms of a stream of photons, which are massless particles each traveling in a wave-like pattern and moving at the speed of light. Electromagnetic radiati   ...

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